Tuesday 5 November 2013

OpenJailbreak, fuzzyDuck & iOS fuzzing...

OpenJailbreak Project:-

At JailbreakCon 2013 in new york the launch of a new project "OpenJailbreak" was announced. The main purpose of OpenJailbreak is to create a central open source repository for all jailbreaking tools that are created when a Jailbreak release is developed. This should give developers, security researchers and Jailbreak teams the tools they need to keep jailbreaking sustainable for the future. At the moment there are a handful of projects running but as the initiative picks up more and more side projects are expected to flourish.

As well as creating the the tools and providing the source, another stream has come from the OpenJailbreak project in the form of education and training. Each and every week a Jailbreak class is run. The goal of the project is for the class to create an untethered jailbreak from the members of the community that contribute to the classes each week. The class is held via Skype & IRC each Saturday at 1pm UTC and usually last around an 1-2 hours.

Each week progress is discussed with individual members contributing their findings and passing on their knowledge to the group. So far this has been tools, crashes or anything they have found that is of interest to jailbreaking in general.

The initial classes discussed the jailbreaking process and what will be required. Since then things have begun to pick up speed and time has been spent looking into fuzzing and creating various tools and wrappers that can automate the fuzzing process. The next step is to investigate the crashes that have been submitted and try to reverse engineer what is happening. Once this done it maybe possible find out if the crash is vulnerable and can be used for an exploit. More information on the classes can be found at the links below:


fuzzyDuck automated iOS fuzzing tool:-

As fuzzing was topical I thought I would take a look into it and read the chapter on fuzzing from the iOS hackers handbook. After reading this and listening into some of the discussion on #OpenJailbreak I decided to look into automating the process so that a test case could be fuzzed, tested with MobileSafari and then any crash copied to a directory for later review along with the fuzzed test case. I could then check it out  and ensure it was reproducible across platforms and iOS versions.

Web Server

I decided that the best way to do this was probably going to be on the device, the downside of this is you need a Jailbroken device but it does provide you plenty of flexibility in copying the crash.plist and the test case to where you want in order to investigate further. A couple of people were looking at using python as a web server on the device which seemed feasible as you could simply use:

#python -m SimpleHTTPServer 8080

This would create a web server from the directory your in, you can then serve up the test case and run it via MobilSsafari. e.g. simply opening:


After trying this I found that python wasn't the best option, it was causing the .mov file to not play in MobilSafari. Serving the same content to normal desktop Safari from the device was fine and the .mov files seemed to play ok. I don't know why this was happening but decided to look for another httpd daemon to serve up the test cases on the device. It didn't take long to find lighttpd which is a very light weight http server (as the name suggests) and is available from cydia.

When I started the lighttpd daemon this and tried to access a .mov file I had created using the camera on the device it played perfectly via MobileSafari on device. Cool, I grabbed another mov from the Apple Support site and tried to spin that up using lighttpd and MobileSafari on device. This didn't play in mobile safari but did on desktop safari... which I *think* was important. I noticed that if you have a mov file you are going to fuzz it should probably play before it is fuzzed. This isn't necessarily the gospel (just my findings), but if the .mov file your testing with is failing to play before it gets to the interesting bit in the file you have fuzzed, then your fuzzing is going to be useless. I think it is probably safe to say if the mov file plays then it is a good candidate to fuzz with and you will have more chance of crashing.


Now I had a webserver I needed to create a script that would run, mutating my test case and then launching it in Mobile Safari. If it caused a crash then the crash dump and the mutated test case should be copied to a crashes directory. This is pretty much how the iOS Hackers Handbook does it so I thought I would give it a go. In the book Charlie Miller is using python to write his own fuzzer. After not having much luck with python earlier and reading that it had performance issues running on iOS I thought it would be better to use zzuf. Zzuf had been discussed in the classes and a few others were having luck with it so gave it a go. I'm not sure where it came from but I managed to find a copy of a zzuf that had been built for iOS. I believe it was compiled for ARM by comex so props to him for that!

zzuff takes the original test case mutates it and then outputs it to another file. As well as giving it the input file and output file you can specify a seed and ratio for mutation. The ratio I am using in my script was suggested by compiledEntropy, but if you need to you can play with this and change it around to see what results you get, the more you mess with it the longer it may take to generate a test case. This is the command I use to create test cases:

#zzuf -s $RANDOM -r 0.0001:0.001 < originalTestCase.mov > mutatedTestCase.mov


After the test case is created I needed a way to test it, iOS Hackers Handbook to the rescue (again)! The simplest way to test this is using a tool called sbopenurl. Simply passing it a URL it will fire MobileSafari and inject the URL to it. This tool is available from the cydia package com.innoying.sbutils. The command is simply:

#sbopenurl http://localhost:3000/mutatedTestCase.mov

I know others had tried to create web pages that auto ran the test case but this seemed to fail. Mobile Safari seems to demand input from the user before playing so it wouldn't work in an automated fashion.

Crash Dumps

Now I had a way to serve the test cases (lighttpd), create the test cases (zzuf) and open the test cases (sbopenurl). The final step was to check for crashes and put it into one big loop to run and run! It seems that nearly all test crashes eventually end up in:


I'm not entirely sure how they get there though, it seems after a Kernel Panic the kernel panic logs are initially created in the directory below:


When you navigate to Settings > General > About > Diagnostics & Usage > Diagnostics & Usage Data  on the device the crash logs are copied into the directory previously mentioned:


I couldn't work out what was doing this, I looked through the preferences app and there seems to be an instance method cleanupTimer that is invoking crash_mover. I tried to run crash_mover manually and by starting the launch daemon (com.apple.crash_mover) but this didn't work. In the end I gave up and decided to just check both directories for logs and copy them out. I would have preferred to aggregate them all in one directory using an 'OEM' supplied method like crash_mover but this will have to do for now.


After running my script for a few days I soon realised that I was getting kernel panic, which was good but it meant that my testing stopped until I manually started the script again. I wanted to test all day & night, just checking the results at the end of the day. This wasn't going to be too difficult as I could simply create a launch daemon to run on reboot. The xml below created the launch daemon and it is then installed via fuzzyDuck tool:

House Keeping and Install

I wanted fuzzyDuck to be easy for anyone to use, so it also includes a number of steps to check for required software and install if necessary as well as some fairly verbose output. I think overall it is a fairly useful tool for a beginner to play with. To get fuzzy duck grab it from the github link below:


The readme.MD contains the instructions on how to install. Any questions fire them over on twitter or IRC to @isa56k =)

Now to try understand WTF the crash dumps are telling me.... 

Monday 9 September 2013

Swerving 'Root' detection on Android...

Last week I was having problems with an Android application that had root detection built in. I don't do a great deal with Android so it's not something I have had to look at before. A user at work had 'rooted' their device to tweak it a little and disable a load of 'bloatware' which was apparently causing performance issues.

Once they had rooted it one of their key applications stopped working as it appeared to be doing some 'root' detection, having looked at iOS jailbreak detection and defeated that for some apps I decided to have a crack and see if something similar could be done. I have played around with Android Debugging Bridge (adb) before so already had the Android SDK installed.

First up was grabbing a copy of the .apk from the device, this was pretty easy as I could list the apps via adb shell and then use adb pull to copy the .apk across to my laptop. Simples.

$ adb shell
shell@mako:/ $ pm list packages -f | grep <name of application>
$ adb pull <path to .apk>

Once I had a copy of the .apk I just needed to decompile it to work out what was going on. A quick google and I found 'apktool'. I installed it and then ran against the .apk which generated a load of directories and crucially some smali code. Smali is an assembler/disassembler for the dex format used by davlik (Android), more info on it here https://code.google.com/p/smali/.

To disassemble the application it was pretty easy, no decrypting 'FairPlay' like you see on iOS:

$ apktool d <path to .apk>

A quick grep of the .smali files for the keyword 'rooted' and I was able to find all the files that might be related to the root detection, this was a bit of guess work but I got lucky! I was soon able to find a couple of methods called 'isRootedDevice' and 'isRooted' in a couple of the smali files. Had the developers called the method something else it might not have been quite so easy. 

$grep -ri rooted

This looked promising so I opened each smali file and searched for 'isRooted'. 

From examining the code I worked out that the developers were looking for the file /system/app/Superuser.apk and also something called 'test-keys'.

I googled what Superuser.apk is and found a few posts on StackOverflow and the following blog:


It seems Superuser.apk is used to manage what applications have su (root) access. It would make sense for the developer to check for this as I guess it is used on most rooted devices (a bit like cydia). If I could change the .apk file that the app was looking for I might be able to defeat this step. The other item that is being checked is 'Test-Keys', apparently this is a generic key for signing packages.

I modified the smali code so that the application would only report it was rooted if it found a random apk or string. As these would never be found the device would not report that it was rooted.

Next I used the apktool to recompile the binary:

$ apktool b <directory with source smali in>

Now I had a package, I could install it onto my device using adb. I tried to install but got the error 'Failure [INSTALL_PARSE_FAILED_NO_CERTIFICATES]':

It seems I need to sign the package before Android will let me install it. A bit of 'Google Power' and I found that you need to sign the package with javasigner. First of all I would need a certificate so I created a key store and cert with key tool  and then signed as below:

keytool -genkey -v -keystore testing.keystore -alias testing -keyalg RSA -keysize 2048 -validity 10000

$ jarsigner -verbose -keystore testing.keystore -digestalg SHA1 -sigalg MD5withRSA <path to apk> testing

Once this was done I installed on a rooted device and bingo... no prompt to say the device was rooted!

I was surprised how easy this was, I had expected it to be a little more challenging. It's quite easy to see how simple it would be to modify a binary add a trojan or some malware and then distribute.

Thursday 5 September 2013

Dangerfield Bogotas...

Over the last few months I have been trying my hand at lock picking, it's a life skill that one day I'm sure will either get me out of trouble or land me in it. Either way when the barrel rolls and you have got non destructive keyless entry it's a buzz!

I started off with a 22pc Southord set from @ukbumpkeys and some Brockhage practice locks. One of the locks is a 5 pin standard lock and the other is also 5 pin but has some spool pins. On pretty much the first attempt I managed to pick the non spool pined lock, alas this seems to have been a fluke! I haven't been able to do it again, until now.


I purchased a couple of sets of 'Dangerfield Bogotas' from @ukbumpkeys. They have had them specially made and they are awesome. They are really tiny and fit perfectly in your wallet. The finish on them is excellent, they seem to be made of some well polished steel which allows them to roll into and out of the lock and over the pins really easily, great for raking. Another neat feature is the slight twist that they have in them, I find this helps to get them into a lock a lot easier than a normal pick.

So far I have been able to rake my two practice locks easily, one of which has spool pins and have never been able to get into until now (see red spool pins in picture below).

I'm no expert but I have been able to pick the 'real' lock below pretty easily with the Bogota's. It is a lock that is in use,  a local UPC conservatory and windows company near to me use them!! Within minutes of trying out the Bogotas it went no problem.

Next up is 'Bumping' I have purchased a large set of Bumpkeys from @ukbumpkeys so will be trying to perfect this skill in the coming weeks. I need to get some more practice locks and have a go with them as I think it is all too easy to to destroy your own locks. Not something you want to do to your own backdoor!

Check out www.ukbumpkeys.com for tools and other lock picking gear!

Tuesday 6 August 2013

iOS7 Error 4027

Quick post....

If you get the error below when trying to upgrade your iPhone to iOS7 via the beta program:

"The iPhone XXXX could not be restored. An unknown error occured (4027)"

You need to install the "Mobile Device Package Installer" available from the dev centre.

Tuesday 30 July 2013

VMWare Fusion 5 DHCP Assigned Static IP...

In order to have DHCP assigned Static IP addresses on a Fusion 5 Virtual machine you need to modify the following file:

/Library/Preferences/VMware\ Fusion/vmnet8/dhcpd.conf

The contents of the file should look like this:

To add a reserved IP you will need the hostname and mac address of your host.

Under the section "DO NOT MODIFY SECTION" add the following:

hardware ethernet <YOUR MAC ADDRESS>;
fixed-address <THE IP TO ASSIGN>;

It should look something like this:

My hostname is kingpin.
My MAC Address is 00:0C:29:70:0D:4B.
The IP I want to assign is

Worth noting, when choosing an IP to assign it must be from the subnet specified further up in the file and not be from the range.

For example, in my config file in the "DO NOT MODIFY SECTION" I have:

subnet netmask {
option broadcast-address;
option domain-name-servers;
option domain-name localdomain;
default-lease-time 1800;                # default is 30 minutes
max-lease-time 7200;                    # default is 2 hours
option netbios-name-servers;
option routers;

I have to choose an IP that is within the range and is not being used in the current DHCP scope. and are used by VMWare and the IP's from - are reserved in the DHCP scope.

That leaves me with any IP from -

I chose as it is easy to remember and I can start counting up from there.


Friday 19 July 2013

Bumpin' Swipe Locks...

An iOS application I use a fair bit has a simple swipe code authentication. The basic idea is you log in every 24 hours with your username and password, then for the next 24hrs you can use a swipe code rather than have to re-type your password each time you want to view the contents of the app. If you get the swipe code wrong more than twice, you also have to enter your password again.

I decided to take a look at how this worked and see if you could fudge the app so that you never had to enter your password (after initial setup) so it wouldn't time out after 24hrs and if I got the swipe wrong (I've not long had my new hands) I could have more than 2 attempts.

First of all I used clutch (lazy way) to decrypt the binary and then class-dump-z to dump out the classes and methods, I'm not going to go into any detail here on these two tools. There is plenty out there if you google it!

Looking through the class-dump-z output I could see a couple of class's that looked interesting one was called XXXSecurity and the other was called XXXSecurityKeys... hmm.

After a little bit of tinkering with theos (a new favourite tool) I was able to get some additional debug on both of these classes as they were being called. If you use logify as below, it will will create you the output to go into your tweak file.

$ /opt/theos/bin/logify.pl yourclass.h > Tweak.xm

Once the tweak is installed onto the device it will log all the output into syslog. It logs the class and method as they are called and the values returned, pretty handy.

I started to use the application and could see in syslog that as I swiped across the tiles the application would login and call the following method:

 -[<XXXSecurity: 0x1d8d18d0> canLoginWithSwipe] = 1

Which was then closely followed by:

-[<XXXSecurity: 0x59405c0> loadPasswordWithSwipeCode:147A]

After trying a few more swipes it soon became obvious the swipe pad was laid out as below:

So if I could get [XXXSecurity canLoginWithSwipeCode] to always return true (1) I would be rockin' the dance floor. This was pretty simple and is a lot like the removing simple jailbreak detection post I did perviously. I created the tweak below and installed:

Once compiled and installed this worked a treat I could keep trying my swipe code.

After looking at the syslog output for a while I began to wonder what would happen if I used cycript to call the various methods, would the app just pop open? If I could do this I could then attempt to brute force the swipe code by passing values to cycript to try? Swipe codes are pretty simple, theres not much entropy.

I started to play around with cycript and wasn't really getting anywhere, so I began to google as this is a fairly common technique for hacking apps, Jailbreak tweakers do this a lot. After a short time googling I stumbled across this blog and also this blog from Prateek Gianchandani, it was really useful but I wasn't getting anywhere so I dropped Prateek a mail. Prateek responded and was able to point me in the right direction. My Objective C isn't great, I am at best a n00b (but learning fast). He explained that it looked like the method that was being called (see below) was an instance method and I needed to find the reference to the instance.

-[<XXXSecurity: 0x59405c0> loadPasswordWithSwipeCode:147A]

A few more emails backwards and forwards, and a bit of digging in cycript, I eventually found that by calling the following the app would return the logged in users password...

cy# [[XXXSecurity sharedInstance]loadPasswordWithSwipeCode:@"147A"]

If I supplied the wrong swipe code I got null back

cy# [[XXXSecurity sharedInstance]loadPasswordWithSwipeCode:@"1234"]

So all I had to do was create a little bash script that would loop round a wordlist of swipe codes and when != null was returned I would have my password... simples!

I knocked up the bash script below to brute force the swipe code and it returned the password quite quickly.  Most swipe codes aren't that long so creating an effective wordlist isn't too hard.

The beauty of this attack via cycript is that even though the app has a password attempt limit of 10 attempts set, it's totally ignored when you use cycript to inject code into the runtime. The other methods aren't called so the app doesn't even know it has been abused or how many times the password has been tried.

I decided to reset the swipe code and check that the bash script worked when I tried against a different swipe code, just incase there were any errors.

As I did this I noticed a method being called that looked quite interesting, it looked like there was a specific method for for setting a new swipe code:

-[<XXXSecurity: 0x59405c0> setSwipeCode:0369AB]

If I could call this and set my own swipe code without any verification of the old swipe code or users current passcode, I could then call the method "loadPasswordWithSwipeCode" with the new swipe code I had set and return the logged in users passcode... whoop whoop no more bruteforce required!!

The following worked a charm and I had the users password:

cy# [[XXXSecurity sharedInstance]setSwipeCode:@"0000"]
cy# [[XXXSecurity sharedInstance]loadPasswordWithSwipeCode:@"0000"]

I decided that I should probably disable the swipe code and only use a password from now on, but doing this didn't work. I could still set any swipe code and return the password. In fact this was probably worse as you even wouldn't know the swipe code had been changed.

The only saving grace for this attack is that you need a Jailbreak for it to work else you cannot install cycript, ssh etc. Having said that I'm pretty sure there is probably some jailbreak 0day out there in the wild that hasn't been patched by Apple.

Thursday 11 July 2013

Remember to removePIE...

A couple of weeks back I was reversing an app and trying to work out what it was doing. I had removed the encryption (the short hand way) using clutch and had the class-dump-z output, but this wasn't quite enough. I needed to go a bit deeper  as I wanted to know a bit more about what was going on.

I already had GDB installed on the device so I decided to spark the application up and attach to the running process. This all went well, I then set my self a couple of breakpoints which seem to be excepted. I hit C and continued to debug the app. Each time the app got to the point I was expecting it to stop it would just keep going. Hmmm odd, maybe GDB isn't working quite right, I'lll try LLDB.

I configured LLDB to work remotely and started a session on my laptop, once again configuring the break points I wanted. Again the app just continued to run no problems, wtf. This was getting frustrating, had the developer configured some anti debug tactics. I had a look around and I wasn't seeing any "Segmentation fault: 11" errors on attach so I assumed they hadn't. Both GDB and LLDB were just not stopping on any of the breakpoints I had set.

After much searching, I came across another blogpost that simply said "Can you debug iOS applications if ALSR is set". A £2 coin hit the floor, boom. I had forgotten disable the ALSR protection. I downloaded removePIE from here https://github.com/peterfillmore/removePIE, copied it to my device and ran against the app.

Bingo, my breakpoints were being hit and working perfectly on both GDB and LLDB. I won't forget this again...

If you want to know more about disabling ALSR and how it works check out the right up here http://www.securitylearn.net/2013/05/23/disable-aslr-on-ios-applications/.

Tuesday 2 July 2013

BYOD - Build Your Own Device...

Recently I have changed a few screens on iPhones, iPods and iPads, I have even got the wife doing them for friends and family. The idea was to look at starting this up as an additional service that the business could provide as well as just consultancy. Part of my research has required finding good parts at cheap prices, after a little bit of googling I quickly came across www.alibaba.com. The best way I can think of to describe the Ali Ba Ba website is "Amazon for Chinese manufacturers". There is literally tons of stuff up there that is all manufactured in China and sold at cheap prices, you can buy everything from Light bulbs to ride on electric cars for kids! My only recommendation is don't make out your interested in anything unless you really (really, really, really) want it. I get 2-3 mails a week offering me LED light bulbs from a girl called "Lucy Wu" that will not give up, her emails do provide a bit of light humor as she often tells some round the houses funny story about what she has been up to that week before asking if I want to buy "the best light bulbs in the world".

After a bit of searching around on "Ali Ba Ba" I found nearly all the standard parts you would expect, the typical ones you can find on ebay and amazon such as replacement screens, cameras, batteries, dock connectors etc. 

Then I found these, an iPhone 4 logic board:

I dismissed it at first and thought that will never work, they will be fakes. Having ordered a few lcd screens and striking up a bit of a relationship with a supplier I decided to ask if they did the logic boards for devices and were they genuine, would they actually work? After a Skype chat the supplier assured me they would work and they were genuine and unlocked. The price of the boards vary but for a iPhone 4 16GB I was lookign at approx £150. Not a good price, but curiosity got the better of me and I decided to look for all the parts I would need to build a device from the ground up.

Quick trip over to iFixit to find a teardown, sure enough an exploded list of iPhone 4 components and parts as below:

I dropped a message to the supplier I had been using and asked them if they could supply 1 x all of the 23 items listed. Sure, they would go away and find out what was required. 24hrs later they came back with a list and a price for all the items, "how many did I want?". I have to stress, I just wanted to do this as an experiment, this wasn't designed to make me any money, in fact it made me a loss, I could buy a 2nd hand iPhone from ebay a lot cheaper. I wanted to know if I could find all the parts, could I actually build my own iPhone, thats what we used to do with PCs right?!?!

I ordered the items I needed and 4-5 days later a courrier dropped the package to my door with all the items.

Now this wasn't exactly the unboxing experience you get when you purchase a nice new phone, I should have probably made a video of it and posted that up but I only took some pictures, here is what I got.

A dirty old cardboard box with bits in...

Here are the main parts, Front screen, back glass, Logic Board, and Main frame. Attached to the main frame was the volume buttons, mute switch, front camera, back camera, ear speaker, loud speaker, dock / charging point. These were already wired up for me, I hadn't asked for this as I wanted to do it myself but it seems they had tried to be extra helpful. :( 

Also included was a bag of screws, of which I had a rough idea what went where but a lot of this was going to be guess work. 

I had a quick look at a video from Direct Fix on how to change an LCD screen on the iPhone 4 to give me an idea of what would go where. After about an 1hr I had everything in place and it was the moment of truth... boot up.

I was amazed to see the apple logo, I didn't expect this... after 30 seconds the lock screen appeared... but it was all in Chinese. I managed to guess my way round the menu with another iPhone to hand and did a factory reset, sure enough it took me to the usual start up screen and I was able to choose my language as per a factory reset. I grabbed a SIM I had an put it in, I then attached to the WiFi network and the device registered as expected without any problems. I could attach to the mobile network and use as per a normal phone. Couple of tests to check the vibrate button, volume buttons and charging all worked ok. No problems there, just make a few calls and check that was all good... 

This is where I hit problems, I could make a call and receive a call ok but didn't hear anything out of the ear speaker, and the mic didn't seem to work. Maybe I had missed something so stripped the device down and the reassembled again, same outcome no sound and no mic. I had a spare iPhone 4 so I took the logic board out of it and swapped them over, with an original Apple logic board the new parts all worked no problem. I put the new logic board back into the new device and booted up again, but this time the LCD wasn't displaying... arrgghh!! 

After much "faffing" around stripping and assembling the two devices I came to the conclusion that the new logic board was in fact faulty so sent it back to the supplier in China. I'm guessing they may have acquired them because they are faulty or not quite up to scratch, who knows.

Once the supplier received the board back they sent to there QA team to test and check if it was faulty. I was kind of expecting the response I got back "Yeah it's all fine, no problems. Want us to send it back?" I was 100% sure it was faulty so asked them to send me a video of the part being tested and working, which they couldn't do. I have now requested a refund and after 4 weeks of hassling them everyday it looks like I might get the money back.

I was hoping that if I got a replacement logic board back that worked I could check what it was talking to by firing it via burp proxy. It doesn't look like I'm going to get one back so this is canceled. 

My conclusion from all of this is Apple make money because they are good at this and they make great devices (IMO)! The amount of engineering that goes into getting so many small parts into a device is amazing, maximum respect to the people who do this for a living (including Samsung, BlackBerry et al).

It is possible to assemble a device from parts imported from a shady Chinese supplier but it's really not worth the time, effort and chances are they will be 2nd rate parts. If you are struggling to find the money to buy one, check ebay for a damaged device and replace the bits that are damaged.

Now I have a few spare devices I would love to try and do some "chip off" type forensics... I am expecting a lot of collateral damage doing that and at the moment have no idea where to start!

Friday 14 June 2013

Defeating "simple" jailbreak detection with theos...

More and more developers are starting to build Jailbreak detection into their apps. A Jailbroken device is classed by many (especially MDM vendors) as compromised. I think this is a fair approach to take, many corporates don't want the risk of devices with un-verified software running on their network.

The problem with jailbreak detection is it can always be defeated. Due to the nature of Objective C it will always be possible to locate the method that is performing the detection and hook it so that it responds in the manner the original developer didn't intend.

When I first started to look at this I wasn't aware of xCon, if you are not interested in how to defeat simple jailbreak detection and just want to get round some non trivial Jailbreak detection in an app grab it from Cydia. The guys have done a good job to cover a lot of apps and for most it works well. You will probably find that it works on some apps that aren't listed too.

The process for patching out Jailbreak detection is something like this:
  1. Decrypt application
  2. Copy to your mac
  3. Dump classes using class-dump-z
  4. Find class that checks for jailbreak detection
  5. Create a patch with theos to hook it.
  6. Install & re run application.
For this you will need:
  1. An Jailbroken iOS device with mobile substrate installed
  2. A mac with Theos installed

Here it is in a bit more detail....

Step 1 - Decrypt application 
There is a long way to decrypt iPhone applications and a quick way. LightBulbOne's blog is a good read and has details on what to do if you want to try the longer way. I prefer the quick  way (some might say lazy) using tools. The best tool I have found so far is clutch. Having done it the long way I would suggest you use clutch! You can find clutch out on the internets and on some Cydia repos, it's commonly used by "Crackers" to pirate apps so sometimes goes missing or gets taken down.

To use clutch simply type the following at a shell prompt.

                  # ./clutch "name of your app"

Clutch will then automagically create an .ipa file of your application which you can then extract the decrypted binary from.

Step 2 - Copy the .ipa to your laptop and extract
This is a pretty straight forward step, just use Cyberduck or SCP to copy the .ipa to a folder or location on your laptop you can easily access. Using your favourite unarchiver extract the contents of the .ipa to a folder. I just use unzip from a cmd line.

Step 3 - Dump the class info
There is a great tool called class-dump-z that if you have looked at reversing iOS apps before you will be well aware of. You will need to grab it from here.

Once you have got class-dump-z you will need to run it against the application binary that can be found in the directory .../Payload/<nameofapp>.app/ . Usually the executeable will match the name of the application. To dump the class run the following command:

                     # class-dump-z Payload/DME\ 4.app/DME\ 4 > dump.txt

Step 4 - Locate method performing Jailbreak Detection
Next, open up the dump.txt file you just created using textpad or another editor. I have been using sublime recently and love it as you can set the language and get some colour coding to help you. Next look through the file or search for anything with "jail", "break" or "detection" in.

Here we can see a class "DMEDevice" that has a method of type BOOL called "isJailBroken". Now we can assume as this is a BOOL type that it is going to either return false or true. If we can hook this method and force it to always return false then we can probably evade the jail break detection.

Step 5 - Hooking with Theos
Theos is a  tool created by Dusten Howett and is used for jailbreak development to create .deb packages and install them on to your device there are some good articles and Wikis on installing theos check out the links below if you haven't got it installed already:


Once you have got theos installed you will need to create a new instance to do this use the (nic.pl script) following:

                    # $THEOS/bin/nic.pl

This will launch the menu, select option 5 "Tweak" and then fill in the relvant details.

The most important one to get right is the "MobileSubstrate Bundle filter". This tells your newly created tweak the application it needs to hook. If you don't know this you will be able to locate it in the file:


It's a binary plist so you will need to use plutil that comes with com.ericasadun.utilities and downloadable from cydia. Simply type the following and then look for the "MobileSubstrate Bundle filter".

# plutil /var/mobile/Library/Caches/com.apple.mobile.installation.plist | grep "CFBundleName" -B1 | grep <App Name> -B1

Where <App Name> is the name of the application your are looking for.

Next you will need to add the required code into the file Tweak.xm file in your project directory.

Using your favoured editor open Tweak.xm and remove all the example code that is in the file. Next add the following:

%hook <Name of Class>
+(BOOL)<Name of Method>
        // Call the original method 

//Pop up an alert to show you got hooked, this is just for debug, you don't really need it
UIAlertView *alert = [[UIAlertView alloc] initWithTitle:@"isa56k pwning..." 
message:@"No Jailbreaks Here" 
cancelButtonTitle:@"Bye Bye" 
[alert show];
[alert release];
        // The most important bit, return false and lie about the jailbreak status!!
return false;


The items in RED above need to match up with your application. This is what my Tweak.xm looks like:

The most important part of the tweak is the really the final line of code in the function "return false". Every time that [DMEDevice isJailbroken] is now called in the application it will be replaced with our patch / tweak fooling the app telling it that it is not Jailbroken.

I have included a UI Alert so that we know our patch is being run, without this it can be difficult to tell that it has actually been called. You could remove this code once you are happy your tweak is working.

As we are using UIAlertView for a bit of debug we need to also include UIKit framework in our Makefile as well as a few other bits and pieces. Open up the Makefile in your project directory and add the following (some will already exist).

#The ip of your device that you will install the tweak on
#The architecture you wish to compile for
export ARCHS=armv7 
export TARGET=iphone:latest:4.3
export SDKVERSION = 6.1

include theos/makefiles/common.mk

TWEAK_NAME = isnotjailbroken
isnotjailbroken_FILES = Tweak.xm
# Add this line in so that the UIKit framework is included
isnotjailbroken_FRAMEWORKS = UIKit

include $(THEOS_MAKE_PATH)/tweak.mk

It's worth noting that when adding in a framework the tweakname must match as below in red:

TWEAK_NAME = isnotjailbroken
isnotjailbroken_FILES = Tweak.xm
# Add this line in so that the UIKit framework is included
isnotjailbroken_FRAMEWORKS = UIKit

It took me ages to spot isnotJailbroken had an uppercase J when debugging an error!!

Here is my Makefile..

Step 6 - Install and Run
The final step is to make, package and install the tweak on to the jailbroken device. from inside your project directory type the following:

                    #sudo make package install

This should compile and then install the patch on your jailbroken device. I have got public key auth set up on my iOS test device so that I am not prompted to enter a password, but you maybe prompted to enter your SSH password for the devices root account at this point.

Next launch the application and check that you get the alert pop up, if you do then your tweak / hook is being called :)

This is only very simple Jailbreak detection, other apps have started to mask when they are checking for jailbreak detection and exactly how they are doing it. I believe some MDM vendors regularly change the methods and the code that checks to keep hackers on their toes.

Wednesday 29 May 2013

Remote Debugging iOS using lldb...

As per previous post, I attended HITB 2013 Amsterdam in April. I decided to do the mobile hacking course run by Blake Turrentine from HotWan, @Pod2g & @P0sixninja.
One thing I picked up from the course was the remote debugging of user land applications using lldb. In order to do this you need to have the following:
  • A mac with Xcode installed
  • Jailbroken Device (iOS.6.1) running ssh
Step 1 - First you need to mount the DeveloperDiskImage.dmg for 6.1. In a terminal window type the following:
  • hdiutil attach /Applications/Xcode.app/Contents/Developer/Platforms/iPhoneOS.platform/DeviceSupport/6.1\ \(10B141\)/DeveloperDiskImage.dmg
Step 2 - Create a temporary directory on your mac and copy the debugserver to it:
  • mkdir debug
  • cd debug
  • cp /Volumes/DeveloperDiskImage/usr/bin/debugserver . 

Step 3 - Next, you need to code sign the executable using an entitlements file. To make the entitlements file do the following:
  • nano entitlements.plist
  • copy and paste the text below into the terminal window 
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><!DOCTYPE plist PUBLIC "-//Apple//DTD PLIST 1.0//EN" "http://www.apple.com/DTDs/PropertyList-1.0.dtd">
<plist version="1.0">

  • press ctrl+x to quit, then Y to save and hit return to exit nano
  • You should have something like below if you cat entitlements.plist 
  • If you don't want to make the entitlements file just download it from the link here
Step 4 - Now you need to sign the executable with the entitlements file you just created:
  • codesign -s  - --entitlements entitlements.plist -f debugserver 

Step 5 - You can unmount the developer .dmg.
  • hdiutil detach /Volumes/DeveloperDiskImage/

Step 6 - Copy the executable to the iPad (this assumes you have ssh running on the device, if you don't you need to do that first). I use usbmux to connect to my iPad via usb, but you could connect via WiFi using the IP address.
  • Starting usbmuxd to forward local port  2222 on my mac to 22 on the remote device
  • Use scp to copy to Device, when prompted enter the password for the root account on your Device (iPad / iPhone). You could use cyberduck or any file transfer application you have. 
  • scp -P 2222 debugserver root@localhost:/var/root

Step 7 - ssh onto the device, start the debugserver and select a port for the server to listen on:
  • ./debugserver localhost:1234 --attach=<TheProcessNameYouWantToDebug>
If you get the error below:

dyld: Library not loaded: /Developer/Library/PrivateFrameworks/ARMDisassembler.framework/ARMDisassemblerReferenced from: /private/var/root/./debugserverReason: image not found

You need to start Xcode with the device connected via usb to your mac and navigate to Window > Organizer (or press cmd + shift + 2) then select the Devices and choose your device from the left hand side pane and ensure the device is configured for development (see apple developer documentation here)

If you are not enrolled in the Apple developer program and have no intention too then you can mount the "DeveloperDiskImage.dmg for 6.1" again (as per step 1) and copy the contents of  /Volumes/DeveloperDiskImage/Library to the /Developer directory on the device. This worked for me before I realised you needed to enrol the device as a development device :) 

Step 8 - If the debug server has started ok and is listening the terminal session will appear to hang as below:

Step 9 - If you are using usbmuxd you will need to ensure the port you just set the debug server to listen on is being forwarded from your mac over usb to the remote port (if you are using IP add to connect to the device you don't need to worry about this).
  • sudo ./Tools/iPhone/usbmuxd/usbmuxd-1.0.8/python-client/tcprelay.py -t 1234:1234

Step 10 - On your mac you can now start lldb 
  • Type lldb at a command prompt
  • Once lldb console has started type platform select remote-ios and hit enter.

Step 11 - Connect to the debugserver running on the device:
  • process connect connect://localhost:1234

Step 12 - You are now attached to the process and can debug using lldb commands
  • register read
  • bt

The following link (http://lldb.llvm.org/lldb-gdb.html) is a gdb to lldb comparison chart that might help if you know the gdb command you want but don't know the lldb command.

I need to do some more work with lldb as I have never really used it, I'm hoping this will be a useful way to look into some apps I have been wanting to reverse for a little while.